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DOI, Digital Objetc Identifier 10.4185/RLCS-2019-1408-91en | ISSN 1138 - 5820 | RLCS, 74-2019 | Audio-visual explanation of the author |

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How to cite this article in bibliograhies / References

A Azurmendi, F Ortega-Mohedano, M Muñoz Saldaña (2019): “Survey and analysis about satisfaction, use and consumption of public television in Spain. The age gap”. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, pp. 1748 to 1777,
http://www.revistalatinacs.org/074paper/1413/91en.html
DOI: 10.4185/RLCS-2019-1408-91en

Survey and analysis about satisfaction, use and consumption of public television in Spain. The age gap

Ana Azurmendi CV [ oORCID] [ gGS] Chair Professor of Communication Law -  Faculty of Communication - Universidad de Navarra. Spain- aazur@unav.es H Index: 11.

Félix Ortega-Mohedano CV [oORCID ] [gGS] Associated Professor in Communications and Audiences Research -Faculty of Social Sciences-Universidad de Salamanca, Spain. fortega@usal.es H Index: 7.

Mercedes Muñoz Saldaña CV [o ORCID] [ gGS] ] Full Professor of Communication Law – Faculty of Communication - Universidad de Navarra     mms@unav.es

Abstract:
Introduction. The digital impact on the audiovisual sector has transformed public television. In fact, the still incipient development of television for Smartphones, Tablets and future mobile platforms is revolutionising the world of audiovisual production, broadcasting, advertising, marketing and interaction with users. This is particularly relevant in Spain where, in December 2017, the number of mobile lines exceeded 51.5 million (Fundación Telefónica (2018) La Sociedad Digital en España 2017), and where 86% of young people own a Smartphone, which they use as a reference device for instant messaging (81.7%), access to social networks (77.5%), music consumption (65.2%) and streaming videos (52.2) (We Are Social and Hootsuite, 2018). Methodology: Considering this scenario, we have conducted a survey, with support from the Qualtrics platform, to investigate three essential aspects: 1. Whether or not there is a correlation between the use of a certain type of device with which television is watched and the degree of satisfaction with public television; 2. What is the content of public television that most attracts young audiences; 3. To what extent the contents of public television offered on social networks are followed, if they are followed in a special way, by young people. Results: The article collects and analyses the results of this survey.

Keywords
Spanish Public Media Service; Satisfaction. Use. Consumption. Mobile devices. Youth

Contents 
1. Introduction and state of the art. 2. How young people and adults perceive public television? Satisfaction with the public television service in Spain. 3. Electronic devices, networks and preferences of contents in the public television. 4. Assessment of the Web, Smartphone or Tablet services platform offered by public television. 5. Contents on public television followed on social networks. 6. Conclusions 7. List of references

Translated by Yuhanny Henares
(Academic Translator, Universitat de Barcelona)

 [ Research ] [ Funded ] 
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1. Introduction and state of the art

It has been a tradition, in the study of Public Television, the interest in aspects like governance, resources management and quality of contents, from a public service perspective. This work is supported on the literature available about these questions, like the case of Humphreys (2016), Bustamante (2016), Hortz (2016), Fernández Alonso and Fernández Viso (2012) and Iosifidis (2011), who appeal to the essential role played by the independence of the political power so that public television could fulfil its role of public service; from Rotermund (2018) and Schweizer and Puppis (2018) about the challenges of the connected society for public television; from Muñoz Saldaña (2015), López Cepeda (2012) and Sarabia Andújar and Sánchez (2012) about its funding; from Campos Freire (2013), Azurmendi, Llorens, López Vidal and Bas (2015), Marzal Felici and Zallo Elguezabal (2016) and Casado del Río, Guimerà i Orts and Miguel de Bustos (2016) about public autonomic television, among some of them. 

The relevance of the survey conducted, based on this research framework, consists of the contribution of primary data of the audience on the perception, satisfaction, use and consumption of public television in Spain. Following Cea-Esteruelas (2018), the quantitative analysis is especially adequate to study the evolution of both public television networks as well as its audiences, in moments of radical transformation of the communication system.

The initial research hypothesis is the presence of a gap between young people and adults in terms of the areas analysed: perception, satisfaction, use and consumption of public television. Media that confirm a reduction of the audience, especially the young audience (Gómez Domínguez 2016). Likewise, like Rydin and Sjöberg (2013), Scolari, Jiménez and Guerrero (2012) and Meso Ayerdi, Larrondo Ureta, Peña Fernández and Rivero Santamarina (2014) insist, that the multiplatform seems to be the key to the success of products targeted to this sector.

Considering this landscape, the study performed has focused on three core aspects:

1. Whether in the consumption of public television, there is a correlation or not between the use of a specific device and the level of satisfaction about its consumption;

2. What is the content of the public television that attracts the young public the most; 

3. To what extent the contents of public television networks  offered on social networks are followed and, especially, by young people.
 
Regarding the work methodology, a quantitative study - survey- has been combined with the documentary analysis about public television:

  1. Survey: the fieldwork was based on a questionnaire containing 39 items. The instrument was distributed by the Qualtrics platform, on a randomised basis, through the associated online Spanish panels in collaboration with ESOMAR-Qualtrics for the analysis of data quality. The fieldwork was designed considering proportional quotas estimated from the National Statistics Census of 2017 on 1 January 2017 - population projections 2016-2031 of the National Statistics Institute. The target of our research were the inhabitants older than 14 years old, distributed in proportional and representative quotas calculated by gender, age and income across all Autonomous Communities. The Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla were excluded and considered in the in the estimation of cities above 10,000 inhabitants.  The survey was conducted between 6 April and 8 May 2017, a total of 1095 answers were collected and, after the quality selection of the sample by timing screen out and coherence quality-control, we finally accepted 1,000 valid respondents. From the 39 questions formulated, we have selected the 17 items more directly related with this study objectives. Please see in the questionnaire (Annex 1.) Q.6, Q.7, Q 8, Q. 9, Q.10, Q.18, Q.19, Q.20, Q.21, Q. 22, Q.23, Q. 24, Q.25, Q.26, Q.27, Q.28 and Q. 29, and complementary frequency tables (in Annex 2.)

  2. Documentary analysis. The study is elaborated based on the most relevant, national and international scope publications, about the public television service and citizens. This way, both the elaboration of the questionnaire for the survey as well as its later analysis focus their contribution in finding data about the perception of satisfaction, use and consumption of television content on different platforms.

2. How young people and adults perceive public television? Satisfaction with the public television service in Spain

To determine the criteria to identify whether there exists or not a different perception about the public television between young people and adults [1] is one of the first questions that have been introduced on the research.  The objective of this study is not delving deeper on the technical aspects or the television programming, to which citizens also score their evaluation, but instead on discovering the general perception, either positive or negative (modulated by essential aspects) of citizens in their relation with the fulfilment of a role/ mission by the public television in the society. In this sense, it was selected - among others- the satisfaction value about public television [2]. The analysis on the perception of satisfaction is, from our perspective, the one that more data offers in correlation with the analysis of the use and consumption. From this perspective, Q.6 and Q.18 were formulated. 

2.1. Satisfaction with the service offered by the National Public Television (NPT) (RTVE)[3]

 1

Graphic 1.  Satisfaction with the NPT (RTVE) by age group

In the evaluation of satisfaction, 21% of respondents younger than 45 years old agree with the expression "I am satisfied with the RTVE", compared to 43% of older than 45 years old who advocate that option. The indifference value is rather high, since it is represented by 28% of respondents younger than 45 years old and 21% of older than that age. About 12% of younger than 45 years old completely agree. With this same radicality, 8% of respondents older than 45 years old consider satisfied.  When summing the percentages, we obtain that 33% of respondents under 45 years old are satisfied with the NPT (RTVE), while in the case of respondents older than 45 years old, the number increases to 51%.

Therefore, there is a significant difference about the satisfaction with the NPT (RTVE) between respondents younger and older than 45 years old. Approximately half of respondents older than 45 years old would be satisfied with the NPT (RTVE), while said satisfaction only occurs in a third part of respondents younger than 45 years old.

When disaggregating the analysis by age subgroups, the following relevant data where found (See Annex, Graphic 2):

The satisfaction with the NPT (RTVE) grows as the age group surveyed increases as well. Thus, the percentage of this value in the range of 14 to 19 years old - of 41% - is almost similar to the percentage of those who show indifferent - which is 37%-. The satisfaction score moderately increases depending on age up to reaching 57% in the range of respondents older than 65 years old.

2.2. Satisfaction with APT (Autonomic Public Television) 

2

Graphic 2. Satisfaction with APT (Autonomic Public Television) by age groups

In the evaluation of the satisfaction of APT (Autonomic Public Television) by age groups (See Annex 2, Graphic 4), there is a predominance of the value of indifference both in respondents under - 32%- as well as older than 45 years old - 31%.   In the case of respondents under 45 years old, 32% show satisfied with the APT, above this range the number reduces to 29%. There is a minority of 10% - between respondents younger than 45 years old- that expresses a complete satisfaction in terms of this public service. While that, above that age range, the datum is 8%. Therefore, summing percentages, it is obtained that 42% of respondents under 45 years old are satisfied with the APT and, with five points below, the number is 37% of cases of respondents older than 45 years old.

Again, there is a significant difference of perceptions by ages, but in the opposite direction to what is observed with NPT (RTVE). In the autonomic field, respondents younger than 45 years old would show a significant - without representing the majority in their group- satisfaction with APT (Autonomic Public Television) that positions above the perception of older than 45 years old in the same context.

When analysing by age subgroups, rather interesting data are obtained. The users between 25 and 34 years old are, with 47%, the most satisfied with the APT (40% moderately and 7% express it in a rather radical manner). However, it is convenient to highlight that the satisfaction does not reach 50% in said group. Another interesting data in relation to the satisfaction with APT are the 32% of users older than 65 years old and 42.5% in the case of users between 35 and 44 years old.

3. Electronic devices, networks and preferences of contents in the public television

In order to verify whether there is some sort of correlation between the feeling of satisfaction with public television - both of national and autonomic scope- and the use and consumption of their services and their contents, we have focused the survey distributed by Qualtrics in three aspects: 1.  Through what devices there is access to television networks, by age; 2. What is the assessment of the contents and online services of television networks, by age; 3. To what extent the television programmes are followed on social networks, by ages. 

3.1. Devices

We want to confirm whether there is a correlation or not between the access to devices and greater satisfaction with public television, in general and in particular (in terms of the assessment of their services and contents on the Wed platform and mobile devices).

One of the key questions about this subject is Q.5 in the Qualtrics survey ("Please indicate the number of devices that you own and/or that you use to communicate - for entertainment").

The most relevant form the perspective of access to devices is that, compared to the traditional television equipment, Tablets, Smartphones and gaming consoles are clearly devices used more intensively by respondents under 45 years old. 

3.1.a. Traditional television

3

Graphic 3.  Property and/ or Use of Traditional Television by age groups

There are few significant differences between the age groups older and younger than 45 years old when using the conventional television.

By section of age groups (See Annex. 2, Graphic 6): there are not very relevant differences between groups. However, we do deem interesting the data the datum that respondents older than 65 years old represent the larger group of users (52%) among who have or use a single television device.

3.1.b.  Ownership and/ or use of Tablets

4

Graphic 4. Ownership and/ or use of Tablet by age group

Somewhat more than half of users older than 45 years old -54%- and of users younger than 45 years old -53%- own or use a tablet. The differences increase in the group that owns or uses two tablets, 22% of respondents under 45 years old and 11% of respondents older than 45 years old.

There are noted relevant variations by age subgroups (See Annex 2. Graphic 8). The group ranging from 35 to 44 years old stands out in the ownership or use of two tablets (24.5%); one of every four individuals in this age range would have or use two tablets while, between 20 and 24 years old, it reduces to one out of every five (22%).

3.1.c. Ownership and/ or use of the Smartphone [4](Smartphone or mobile phone)

5

Graphic 5. Ownership and/ or use of the Smartphone (Smartphone or mobile phone)

Regarding the use of the smartphone, the first relevant datum is that it is very strange not to own or not to use it. Barely 5% of respondents older than 45 years old and 2% of respondents under that age report said situation. On the other hand, 60% of users older than 45 years old have only one smartphone while, under 45 years old, that percentage reduces to 42%. Thus, in terms of ownership of two smartphones, the group of respondents under 45 years old is the most numerous- 30% have them - versus older than 45 years old where the number is only 18%. Considering the second smartphone, it is constant the trend that the respondents under 45 years old are the ones using to a higher percentage 2, 3 or 4 smart devices.

By age subgroups (See annex 2, Graphic 10): the users between 35 and 44 years old represent the most numerous group of those who own or use 2 smartphones (39%), followed by the group of users between 25 and 34 years old (29%).

Based on the ownership or use of the third smartphone, there are the users ranging between 14 and 19 years old: one out of each five users with these ages would have 3 smartphones (20%) and practically one of every three would have 4 or more (32%). This datum would require further analysis about its actual meaning. Are there smartphones that are accumulated because they are receive from their parents, when they purchase new ones? or is there any other reason for them to own or/ and use these number of devices? Do they use them simultaneously? Do they use every mobile phone for different communication-entertainment actions? Is there a security reason? or of using different profiles? or others? Despite their undeniable interest, these questions exceed the purposes of this research.

3.1.d. The ownership and/ or use of the Gaming console

6

Graphic 6.  Ownership and/ or use of Gaming Console

About 50% of users older than 45 years old do not have a gaming console compared to 20% who do in the case of respondents under 45 years old. In positive terms, 37% of respondents under 45 years old have a console and 32% in the case of older than 45 years old. The significant differences are noted in the ownership of two consoles: in the case of respondents under 45 y.o., this number is 38%, while that, above this age, the percentage reduces to 10%.

The following results by age subgroups are obtained:

About 75% of respondents older than 65 years old do not own nor use a gaming console. This number is 12% in the age range between 20 and 24 years old. The age group with the majority proportion in terms of the ownership and/ or use of a single console is that of users between 45 and 54 years old (41%) with values that are very close to that of age groups ranging between 35 and 44 years old (39.5%), 25 to 34 years old (38%) and from 20 to 24 years old (40%). Something more than one out of three users between 25 and 34 years old own or use two consoles (36%), the age groups of younger age - from 14 to 19 years old and 20 to 24 years old- show values close to these; as well as the group between 35 and 44 years old.  Based on the ownership and/or use of three consoles or more, users between 14 and 19 years old play a leading role, but with low numbers (10% or 15% of them would have three or four/ or more consoles respectively).

4. Assessment of the Web, Smartphone or Tablet services platform offered by public television.

The questions Q. 23 and Q. 24 refer to the evaluation of the services and contents of NPT (RTVE) and of APT through the web, on applications for smartphones and tablets.

            1. To assess the contents and services of the NPT on the Web Platform (0 to 100 scale)
            2. To assess the contents and services of NPT on Smartphone applications (0 to 100 scale)
            3. To assess the contents and services of NPT on Tablets (0 to 100 scale)

 
7

Graphic 7. Evaluation of online NPT (RTVE) contents and services

            1. To assess contents and services of APT on the Web Platform (0 to 100 scale)
            2. To assess contents and services of APT on Smartphone applications (0 to 100 scale)
            3. To assess contents and services of APT on Tablets (0 to 100 scale)

8

Graphic 8. Evaluation of online APT contents and services (Autonomic Public Television) by age groups

When analysing simultaneously the results of Q.23 and Q.24, it is obtained that, both in terms of the evaluation of contents and services on Internet of NPT (RTVE), as well as APT, there is a significant difference by age. In all cases, the evaluation is superior in respondents under 45 years old. Likewise, in all cases the evaluation of contents and services of NPT (RTVE) positions above the evaluation for the same items in the APT.

And also, in all cases the evaluation between 1 and 100, used as minimum and maximum values, with scores between 31 and 50 for NPT (RTVE) and between 28 and 43 for APT (Autonomic Public Television). Namely, the multiplatform contents and services of RTVE are valued most than those of Autonomic Public Television, but at relatively low indexes in both cases.

In the case of age subgroups, with the same items to evaluate Q. 23 and 24 (See Annex 2, Graphic 15) it is noted that the age group ranging from 20 to 24 years old and from 25 to 35 years old are very relevant, scoring above 50 (0 to 100 scale) the contents and services of NPT (RTVE) of their Web platform. The smartphone applications of RTVE are scored by all age groups below 50 - which would be the average value- and something similar occurs with the contents and services for tablets of the national public entity. 

However, we deem relevant that both for the Web Platform of RTVE, as well as for applications for smartphone and tablets, the age groups ranging from 14 to 19 years old, from 20 to 24 years old, from 25 to 34 years old and from 35 to 44 years old, in the three items asked, there appear with a higher score compared to the age subgroups older than 45 years old. 
 
In the case of APT (Autonomic Public Television) (see Annex 2, Graphic 16), the age group of 14 to 19 years old is the one appreciating the most, the services and contents of APT both on the Web platform of the APT as well as on smartphones and tablets.   Followed after, on the three devices, by users of ages ranging from 20 to 24 years old and, in third place, by users of 25 to 34 years old. Although in neither of the evaluations the average score of 50 is exceeded.
Altogether, in the case of APT, the age groups showing more differences between them in terms of the 3 questions referred to contents and services of the platforms, there are the age group of 14 to 19 years old and the group of 55 to 64 years old.

As a conclusion of the previous data, related to the survey questions Q.6 Satisfaction with public television, Q.5 Ownership and use of devices and Q.23 and 24 Evaluation of contents and online services of public television, we estimate there is a positive correlation between the accessibility to devices - more accessibility of respondents under 45 years old- and better evaluation of contents and online services of public television - best valued by this age group of respondents under 45 years old-. However, there is no correlation between accessibility to devices, evaluation of contents and online services on the one hand and perception of satisfaction in terms of the Public Television institution on the other. Considering that the age group of respondents younger than 45 years old - who value more positively the contents and online services of RTVE than the group of respondents older than 45 years old- manifest to be less satisfied with the National Public Television than respondents older than 45 years old. Likewise, the respondents under 45 years old feel more satisfied with the Autonomic Public Television than respondents above that age threshold and, nevertheless value less positively its contents and online services. 

5. Contents on public television followed on social networks

Once the data about the use of different devices by users is analysed, the study focuses on the type of contents of public television that users follow on Facebook or Twitter and whether there are any differences by groups and age groups.  Both aggregated and disaggregated data were obtained -by age groups of older-younger than 45 years old. In this last case, in some values the number of responses limits the validity of results.

The questions that meet our interest are Q. 26 and 27.

5.1.RTVE (NPT) Contents followed the most on social networks

5.1.a. RTVE Sports (NPT) on social networks

9

Graphic 9. Sports contents of the NPT (RTVE) followed on social networks

RTVE Sports are one of the most followed contents on social networks by all publics, young people and adults.

In the case of respondents under 45 years old, Facebook would be the place where most percentage follow this content, with 30%, although 28% follow it through both Facebook and Twitter. To these data, we must add that of the users in this age range who follow them only through Twitter, a 14%. In total terms, there would be 72% of users under 45 years old who follow the sports.

On the other hand, older than 45 years old also reach significant percentages in terms of follow-up of sports of the National Public Television (RTVE) through social networks: 29.5%, follows them simultaneously on Facebook and Twitter; 28% through Facebook and 14.5% through Twitter. Again, the sum of percentages offers the datum of 72% of users older than 45 years old who follow sports of RTVE on social networks.

When analysing the age subgroups in terms of the follow-up of sports events (See Annex 2, Graphic 18), it is representative, in first place, the volume of users who do not follow sports on social  networks. It is about 31.5% of individuals between 45 and 54 years old, besides the 32% of older than 65 years old. Namely, practically one out of every three respondents do not follow RTVE sports on social networks. Surprisingly, in the youngest age groups the percentage of those who do not follow sports on social networks is also high, 39% of users between 14 and 19 years old and 30.5% of young people between 20 and 24 years old.

Facebook would be the most used network for RTVE Sports, where the group of users ranging between 25 and 29 years old is more active (31.5%)

5.1.b. RTVE series followed on social networks

In the NPT (RTVE), the series are positioned immediately behind sports as the most followed content on social networks.

10

Graphic 10.  NPT series (RTVE) followed on social networks, by age group

There are no significant differences between older and younger than 45 years old in terms of the follow-up of series on social networks.  The data observed on sports contents is repeated in such a way that one out of every 3 users does not follow series on social networks. Like the case of sports, Facebook is the preferred social network to follow the series of the NPT (RTVE), reaching values up to 44% for older than 45 years old and 42% for younger than 45 years old.

The percentage of those who follow series through Twitter is lower, 30% of respondents younger than 45 years old compare dot 27.5% of older than 45 years old.  However, summing the percentage of both social networks, it is obtained that the series is one of the contents of the National Public Television that achieves a connection with the youngest (72%) and more adult (71.5%) audiences.

When analysing the age subgroups in further detail (see Annex 2, Graphic 20), it is observed how the group of 35 to 44 years old is more active with RTVE series on social networks, both on Facebook as well as on Twitter (24% and 25% respectively). The age groups ranging from 25 to 34 years old and from 45 to 54 years old have values closer but below users of 35 to 44 years old.

5.1.c. RTVE News on social networks

After sports and series, the news programmes are the third type of content of the NPT (RTVE) followed the most on social networks. In third place, as the type of content of the NPT followed the most on social networks, there are the news programmes:

11

Graphic 11. News programmes of the NPT (RTVE) followed on social networks, by age groups.

In first place, the high percentage of users who do not follow the news on social networks (43% of respondents under 45 years old and 42% of respondents older than 45 years old). Among the active users, 44% of users under 45 years old follow information programmes of RTVE on Facebook. This percentage is 40% in the case of respondents older than 45 years old.  The case of users who follow the information of the NPT simultaneously through Facebook and Twitter is much lower on the different age ranges: 18% in the case of older than 45 years old and only 13% under that age. Summing percentages: a total of 57% respondents under 45 years old follow the information of the NPT on social networks, while in the case of older than 45 years old, it is 58%.

When analysing further by age subgroups (see Annex 2, Graphic 22) we find that users between 35 and 44 years old and from 45 to 54 years old are more active about the informative contents of RTVE on social networks. If the former use Facebook the most -25%-, the respondents between 45 and 54 years old use Facebook and Twitter simultaneously - about 25%-. In the two subgroups the percentage of people that do not use social networks for news is high (23.5% the group ranging from 35 to 44 years old and 22.5% the group between 45 and 54 years old).

The rest of contents of the NPT (RTVE) are positioned far behind these percentages of the follow-up of sports, series and news programmes.

5.2.      Contents of the APT (Autonomic Public Television Networks) followed the most on social networks

One of the doubts previous to conducting the study was whether the behaviour of users of public television networks would have relevant variations depending on the type of television, national or autonomic. The Qualtrics survey has offered the datum that there is a difference in the use and consumption between television operators, and that the proximity factor - in this case, contents closer to the place of residence of the user- has consequences in the behaviour of the audience.

5.2.a. The Talk Shows of autonomic public television are the most followed programmes on social networks.

12

Graphic 12. Talk Shows of APT (Autonomic Public Television) followed on social networks, by age groups

A significant datum in the follow-up of contents of Autonomic Public Television (APT) on social networks is the high percentage of users who follow Talk Shows on Twitter. Perhaps even more relevant is that those who represent a higher percentage are the respondents under 45 years old (43.5%), followed closely by older than that age (41%).  Likewise, there is a high percentage of users from all ages that do not follow these programmes on social networks (42% of respondents under 45 years old and 41.5% of respondents older than 45 years old).

By age subgroups (see Annex 2, Graphic 24), it is observed that the group of users ranging from 35 to 44 years old follows the Talk Shows mainly through Twitter -about 25%-, following closer to that value, the respondents of this same age range that follow through Facebook - about 23%-. About 25% of users between 45 and 54 years old, follow simultaneously through Facebook and Twitter. The group of 25 to 34 years old reaches lower values, but still relatively close.
 
5.2.b. The follow-up of sports contents of the APT (Autonomic Public Television) on social networks.

13 

Graphic 13. Sports contents of the APT (Autonomic Public Television) followed on social networks, by age groups

Another difference of APT regarding the NPT (RTVE) is that the former have a relatively low percentage of followers of their sports contents on social networks.  Through Facebook there follow 30% of users under 45 years old and 29% of respondents older than 45 years old. While there follow simultaneously through both networks, 12 and 16% respectively.  Again, the constant datum of a high percentage of users who do not follow sports on social networks is noted in the Autonomic Public Television (58.5% of respondents under 45 years old and 57% of respondents older than that age).

Analysing the results by age subgroup (see Annex 2, Graphic 26), 26% of users between 35 and 44 years old follow sports on Facebook compared to 19.8% who do so on Twitter or Facebook. The trend reverses in the group of 45 to 54 years old, where 25% uses simultaneously both social networks and a percentage of 18% follow sports contents of APT on Facebook.  Higher values - but not so distant- from the ones represented both by the age group of 24 to 34 years old and 55 to 64 years old.

5.2.c. The follow-up of series of the APT (Autonomic Public Television) on social networks

14

Graphic 14. APT series (Autonomic Public Television) followed on social networks, by age

The most relevant data obtained from the Qualtrics survey about the follow-up of contents of APT is the overwhelming majority of those who do not follow series on social networks, both older and younger of 45 years old. There is not a generational gap here either.

When analysing by age subgroup (see Annex 2, Graphic 28) it is observed that one out of every five users between 35 and 44 years old (25.5%) follow the series of the Autonomic Public Television on Twitter.  While a somewhat lower percentage within that group follows them on Facebook.  The users between 25 and 34 years old and between 45 and 54 years old are close to these values of series follow-up through social networks, but without reaching them.

5.2.d APT News programmes (Autonomic Public Television) followed on social networks

15

Graphic 15. APT News Programmes (Autonomic Public Television) followed on social networks, by ages

Again, the most noteworthy data is, in the case of APT, the low follow-up of news programmes. The majority, 59% of older than 45 years old and 57% younger that than age , state not to follow them.

Considering the scarce follow-up, the preferred social network to follow news programmes of APT is Twitter. About 30% of respondents under 45 years old and 29.5% of older than 45 years old follow through this network, the information of APT networks of their region. In the case of Facebook, the data are 13% in the case of respondents under 45 and 11.5% above that age range.

When studying the age groups thoroughly (see Annex 2, Graphic 30) it is observed that the most active group for news programmes on social networks, both on Facebook as well as Twitter, is the age group between 35 and 44 years old. One out of every 5 users of this group use Facebook to follow the news contents (25.5%) while a somewhat lower percentage use Twitter instead (24%).  In terms of level of activity on social networks there follows the group of users between 25 and 34 years old (23.5% of the news follow-up on Facebook) and the group between 45 and 54 years old (19% of the follow-up of news on Twitter).

Conclusions

1. General satisfaction with public television - RTVE and Autonomic Public Television - in Spain

There is a significant difference about the satisfaction with RTVE (NPT) between respondents younger and older than 45 years old. A majority of respondents older than 45 years old would be satisfied with the National Public Television (RTVE). While only a third part of respondents under 45 years old would be.

Regarding the satisfaction with the Autonomic Public Television (APT) there is also a significant difference of the perception by ages, but opposite to the National Public Television (NPT) In this case, respondents under 45 years old show a significant satisfaction - without being majority in their group- with the Autonomic Public Television (APT) above older than 45 years old.

2. Correlation between accessibility to devices and satisfaction with contents and online services.

There is a correlation between the ownership of electronic devices (higher and to a greater extent by respondents under 45 years old) and the satisfaction with contents and services of the public television on the Web, Smartphones and Tablet, reported the most by respondents under 45 years old.

3. There is no correlation between the accessibility to devices, satisfaction about contents and online services on the one hand and satisfaction with Public Television networks as institution on the other

There is no correlation between, on the one hand, accessibility to devices, evaluation of contents and online services and, on the other hand, perception of satisfaction in terms of the Public Television institution. In this sense, the age group of respondents under 45 years old - who values more positively than the group of older than 45 years old, the contents and online services of RTVE - manifests being less satisfied with the National Public Television than the respondents older than 45 years old. Likewise, that same group of respondents under 45 years old, feels more satisfied with the Autonomic Public Television than respondents older than that age, and nevertheless, values less positively their contents and online services.  

4. Contents of public television networks followed online

Sports, Series and News, (In that order) are the contents of RTVE (NPT) followed the most both by respondents younger and older than 45 years old on social networks. While that in the case of Autonomic Public Television (APT) it is relevant that it is the Talk Shows programmes the ones showing a higher follow-up on social networks both by respondents younger and older than 45 years old.
In conclusion, the users indicate that the public television on Internet is mainly followed due to the driver of entertainment, but also to get informed.

The research about use and consumption habits on the different descriptive variables of the public media service, of national and/ or regional scope, is an object of study we should keep developing in the next years in order to: first, evaluate satisfaction in longitudinal series and subsequently, the final public service offered. Second, to analyse the evolution  of preferences and use habits in the different age groups, devices, regions and, in third place, to identify the needs and communication demands that the social audience of the public media service is requesting. This research aims to become a starting point to enlighten with data and indicators, the need of persisting in the construction of the best public media service in our sociocultural environment. We have identified that there is a generation and technologically divided audience, their use and consumption habits, their preferences must be listened to and duly met in order to, finally, offer them a national and/ or autonomic television service that meets their expectations.

 

* Programme Project of R+D+i Oriented to the Challenges of the Society, Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness,  PI Ana Azurmendi, Transformation of the autonomic television: weakening of the public service and perspectives of technological development in an environment of crisis, CSO2013-42270-R (2013-2016, with extension of execution to 2018)

 

Notes

[1] Based on the results of this survey without differentiation by age group see Azurmendi, A.,  Muñoz Saldaña, M. and Ortega Mohedano, F. (2018), Independence from politicians and citizen’s participation, two demands to the Public Broadcasting Service in Spain, Communication & Society, vol. 31, n.3,  pp. 111-138. Accessible in http://www.unav.es/fcom/communication-society/en/resumen.php?art_id=696

[2] In other studies, there was the analysis of the perception of the values on independence and need.

[3] When using the NPT acronym, we refer to the National Public Television RTVE; APT Autonomic Public Television. The questions in the survey about these operators have been formulated in terms of the Public Autonomic Television features of the Autonomous Community of origin of every respondent.

[4] The term "Teléfono inteligente" is used in the heading in compliance with the term used in the Qualtrics survey, but we will use the word "Smartphone" in the text due to its more frequent use.

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Anexo 1 pdf

Anexo 2
Gráfico 1.1. satisfacción con la TPN (RTVE) por subgrupos de edades

17

Gráfico 2.2 Satisfacción con la TPA  (Televisiones Públicas Autonómicas) por subgrupos de edad

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Gráfico 3.3 Propiedad y/o uso Televisión tradicional por subgrupos de edad

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Gráfico 4.4  Propiedad y/o uso Tableta, secciones grupo de edad

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Gráfico 5.5 Propiedad o/y uso de Teléfono Inteligente o Smartphone por subgrupos de edad

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Gráfico 6.6  Propiedad y/o uso de la Consola de juegos por subgrupos de edad

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Gráfico 7.7 Valoración de contenidos y servicios online TPN (RTVE)  por subgrupos de edades

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  1. Valorar contenidos y servicios de TPN en Plataforma Web (de 0 a 100)
  2. Valorar contenidos y servicios de TPN en aplicaciones de teléfonos móviles (0 a 100)
  3. Valorar contenidos y servicios de TPN en  Tabletas (de 0 a 100)



Gráfico 8.8 Valoración de contenidos y servicios online de la TPA (Televisiones Públicas Autonómicas) por secciones de grupos de edades

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     1. Valorar contenidos y servicios de TPA en Plataforma Web (de 0 a 100)
     2. Valorar contenidos y servicios de TPA en aplicaciones de Smartphones (0 a 100)
     3. Valorar contenidos y servicios de TPA en Tabletas (de 0 a 100)


Gráfico 9.9 Contenidos deportivos de la TPN (RTVE) seguidos por redes sociales, por subgrupos de edad

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Gráfico  10.10  Series de TPN (RTVE) seguidas por redes sociales, por subgrupos de edad

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Gráfico 11.11  Informativos de la TPN (RTVE) seguidos por redes sociales, por subgrupos de edad

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Gráfico 12.12 Talk Shows de la TPA (Televisiones Públicas Autonómicas) seguidos por redes sociales, por subgrupos de edades

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Gráfico 13.13  Contenidos deportivos de la TPA (Televisiones Públicas Autonómicas) seguidas por redes sociales, por subgrupos de edades

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Gráfico 14.14 Series de TPA (Televisiones Públicas Autonómicas)  seguidas por redes sociales, por subgrupos de edades

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Gráfico 15.15. Informativos TPA (Televisión Pública Autonómica) seguidos por redes sociales, por subgrupos de edades

31

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How to cite this article in bibliographies / References

A Azurmendi, F Ortega-Mohedano, M Muñoz Saldaña (2019): “Survey and analysis about satisfaction, use and consumption of public television in Spain. The age gap”. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, pp. 1748 to 1777,
http://www.revistalatinacs.org/074paper/1413/91en.html
DOI: 10.4185/RLCS-2019-1408-91en

 

Paper received on 21 April. Accepted on 28 July.
Published on 22 December.

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