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DOI, Digital Objetc Identifier 10.4185/RLCS-2018-1267en | ISSN 1138 - 5820 | RLCS, 73-2018 | Audio-visual explanation of the author |

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How to cite this article in bibliograhies / References

R Reig, R Mancinas-Chávez (2018): “Transgresion and critics of the system: the journalistic vignette”. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 73, pp. 504 to 530.
http://www.revistalatinacs.org/073paper/1267/26en.html
DOI: 10.4185/RLCS-2018-1267en

Transgresion and critics of the system: the journalistic vignette

Rosalba Mancinas-Chávez [CV] Professor in the Department of Journalism II – Universidad de Sevilla – rmancinas@us.es

Ramón Reig  [CV] Professor in the Department of Journalism II - Universidad de Sevilla – ramonreig@us.es

Abstract
After a methodological basis through a vignette, a brief theoretical approach to the issue is shown in which the journalistic message is divided into a conjunctural and structural form. Then, generic qualitative content analysis of some journalistic vignettes is offered, which, in our opinion, can illustrate the mentioned messaging division, focusing above all on the vignettes articulated with the structural message which we have split into several categories, such as: the unique market system, the contempt for human rights, the ablation of conscience, the double morality, the thought without thought, functionality of the message, social disarticulation, new economy and loneliness, the illusion of freedom, consequences of criticizing beliefs (Charlie Hebdo), etc. All these, ending with a brief conclusion.

Keywords
Journalist vignette; message; intentionality; structural approach.

Contents
1. Introduction. 2. Hypothesis. 3. Theorethical-methodological background. 3.1. Vignette is opinion 3.2. Simple structural approach and qualitative contents Analysis 3.3. Qualitative analysis categories. 3.4 Conjunctural message and structural message 4. Results. 5. Conclusions. 6. Notes. 7. List of references.

Translation of paper by Yuhanny Henares
(Academic translator, Universitat de Barcelona)

 [ Research ] 
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1. Introduction

In 2008 one of the authors of this paper published in this same journal, a text were he presented an analysis of the transmission of the transgressor, critical, atypical message in the general landscape of Spanish journalism, through the journalistic vignette (Reig, 2008).

Part of the theoretical, methodological and empirical background we are about to use here already appeared in that study more than ten years ago. However, we wanted to demonstrate how those complaints seem to have fallen, if not completely on deaf ears, in such a chronic oblivion that the authors themselves are forced to follow the dictates of their consciousness reminding their recipients that the situation not only has not improved, but instead, in some aspects, it conveys the feeling of having changed for worse.

Therefore, our mission was taking that study as starting point and to complete it with new analytical contributions considering that, if the problem persists, both the work of vignette cartoonists as well as ours, is deemed necessary. The year 2008 was the start of the crisis we are still in, whose trigger was the collapse of Lehman Brothers. Macroeconomic indicators point towards a positive direction but, as Pierre Vilar (1974) made clear many years ago, one thing is growth and another one, development. We may be in a growth period: productive, mediatic, technological, but there is the feeling that our species is clung to an extreme greed. The press vignette is quite aware of it and we consider that our obligation is to continue a research monitoring of the matter.

2. Hypothesis

There is a vignette of deep critical relevance, that is not only focused on everyday life aspects, but instead dares to question, almost permanently, the system within it develops -paradoxically -. Its critics go even beyond the editorial line of the media that sheltered it, which is clearly observed in the case of El Roto and, with less sharpness, in Forges, which are the two prevailing authors in this paper. Undoubtedly, humor is a special way to “sneak” issues and perspectives that the usual journalistic text cannot or doesn’t want to have.  

But this matter must be demonstrated with a greater strength compared to 2008 and this is what we are aiming for through some samples of both authors – mainly- that enlighten us about the critical line, usual in their communicative expressions through drawings and written text. Said demonstration will be done using a qualitative analysis.

3. Theoretical-methodological background
3.1. Vignette is opinion

In this text, we assume a definition of journalistic vignette summarized in the following words: the press vignette is an excellent tool for the critical analysis of reality (Tejeiro Salguero and León Gross, 2009). These authors echo the opinion of others to which we also sum up. Thus, they state:

Peña Marín sustains that graphic humor contributed to the constitution of an comprehension and evaluation of the social world shared by a wide majority of Spanish citizens during Francoism; Natalia Meléndez defends that vignettes contributed powerfully to the role specific media played in the conformation of opinion during transition.  

In the present times, it seems absurd to go back to the debate that emerged in the past regarding the journalistic genre the vignette belongs to. Undoubtedly, it is an opinion genre, in the academy we tend to debate about the unreality in the sense that both vignette cartoonists and mass media (written in this case) position the vignette in their opinion section. From the previous paragraph that talked about the vignette in Francoism and the Spanish transition between Francoism and democracy (Segado Boj, 2009), we conclude we were standing before a text of double opinion: the image conveyed an opinion and the discursive text, that sometimes didn’t even existed, conveyed an opinion as well. Satirical magazines of political nature La Codorniz and Hermano Lobo were kidnapped by their opinative contents in the same way it happened with the famous cover of El Jueves on 2007 where the Princes of Spain back then (now kings) appear copulating in a especially erotic position.

On the other hand, also the humoristic vignettes magazine El Papus was victim of a bomb on September 1977, committed by the extreme right, although the tragedy was not completely clarified. A suitcase was handed to Juan Peñalver, watchman of the house where the magazine’s editorial offices were located –in Barcelona-  so to give it to the director of the publication, Xavier de Echarri, but the suitcase exploded earlier and destroyed Peñalver’s body at the same time other seventeen people were injured (Geli, 2017).

Besides being an evidence for any individual comparing publications with the objective of confirming where vignettes appear, for many years their presence was witnessed in the opinion section in a proportion near 60 percent (Tejeiro Salguero and León Gross, 2009). It is not necessary to insist on the matter, in this aspect of journalistic genres.

3.2. Simple structural approach and qualitative content analysis

We will use a double methodology in this study, although they are two pathways ending up joining into one. On one hand, we have the Simple Structural Approach (SSA) we have talked about elsewhere (Reig, 2017). On the other hand, we have the Qualitative Content Analysis (QCA) which includes the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA).

The SSA –since it is complicated- it complies with the articulations of the macro-structure of power surrounding us: the market. In the market, there are underlying business (large corporations), financial (banking, investment funds), political (UNO) and military factors (NATO), all of them more or less articulated. But the element of large corporations includes alliances between mediatic corporations that currently go beyond the purely mediatic to delve into a network of bonds between telecommunications, communication and technology, all this supported by the financial element and other non-financial corporations. For instance, AT&T (telecommunications) is owner of Time-Warner (communications/messages) with the support of JP Morgan (banking) and Microsoft [1].

From this structural articulation there emerge messages destined to avoid that the mercantile structure suffers too much due to the dissident alternative pressure of some social segments. However, not all messages are unanimous in their approaches. In what the professor Enric Saperas (1987) called self-legitimation of media some decades ago, among pro market messages there “leak” minoritarian opinions that question the mercantile system one way or the other. This is the positioning of the vignettes we are about to analyze. We are facing an omnimodal power that has not yet reached the absolute totalitarianism, something the new digital media circulating in a network also impede, although we must keep in mind it also belongs to the market.

The Complex Structural Approach (CSA) is not the aim of this paper, but we must say that it already breaks the science/ letters split or social sciences/ ‘pure’ sciences split to become a transversal philosophical method aiming for the deepest casuistry of events.

QCA and CDA will be understood here as interconnected, based on ideas exposed by Eiroa and Barranquero (2017: 61 y 119):

(…) the qualitative method is used when there is no intention of getting statistical data nor numbers. On the contrary, researchers use it when they need to know themes in Depth as well as aspects related to perceptions and human behavior, such as opinions, reflections, thoughts or the reasons leading to taking specific decisions. We understand as qualitative methodology, a research strategy based on a rigorous contextual description of an event, behavior or situation, guaranteeing the maximum objectivity in the capture of reality.

(…)
In general, critics coincide in indicating that the reach of the quantitative analysis of texts is quite limited when it comes to interpret in depth, the contents of mediatic texts and describe variables such as social and political contexts where messages are generated, disseminated and received.

To look for this context is what lead us to the Simple Structural Approach, in such a way that without context there is no text. Vignettes we are about to study below respond in their contents to the social-economic-mediatic context sketched here.

3.3. Qualitative analysis categories

We have used some categories we consider essential, derived from the indicated context and where vignette cartoonists inspire to create their ‘analytical-opinative’ messages.

 Categories of Qualitative-Critical Analysis

Classification

Themes

Methodological grounds

  • The structural methodology in a vignette.
  • Globalization of information / world structure of information /Infoxication.

Vignettes with conjunctural messages

  • Critics to Mariano Rajoy, president of the Spanish government (on 2017-2018).
  • Prince and princess. Historic critics to Bourbons.
  • Gap between world conjunction and ‘endocultural education’.

Vignette as critic of the structural message

  • Unique market system.
  • Human rights, submitted to economic interests.
  • Scandalous inequalities.
  • Ablation of consciousness.
  • Double moral.
  • Good will.
  • No substantial change.
  • Thought without thinking.
  • Functionality of message.
  • Social disarticulation.
  • New economy and loneliness.
  • Abandonment of the minor.
  • A dangerous object.
  • Illusion of freedom.
  • Reaction against critics to emotions, beliefs and power: Charlie Hebdo.
  • Double ethics of journalism.

We already indicated that the main mission of this paper is to base it on the one we already elaborated on 2008 so that, from there, we demonstrate conveniently argued new contributions. Among them, there are some sub-categories, as we call them, of some categories comprised in the previous table.

Categories

Sub-categories

 

Critics to Mariano Rajoy, president of the Spanish government (in 2017-2018).

  • Stagnation.
  • Submissiveness before extreme power.

 

 

Scandalous inequalities.

 

  • Inequality despite progresses.
  • The constant continues, but it extends to the youth.
  • Hands-free system?
  • Market greed.

 

No substantial change.

 

  • Does the system absorbs the antisystem?

 

Functionality of message.

 

  • Reversion of discourse.
  • Who is in charge of agenda setting now?
  • Who and what imposes agenda setting to those imposing agenda settings to publics? 
  • Power in press.

 

Abandonment of the minor.

 

  • Progressive incursion of new technologies.

 

Reaction against critics to emotional, beliefs and power and the double ethics of journalism.

 

  • Charlie Hebdo (2015).

As it is and will be observed, a greater part of new contributions are focused on what we call structural message and its reflection in press vignettes, which is completed with sketches about vignettes of what we call conjunctural message.

3.4. Conjunctural message and structural message

As we indicated in the study this paper is based on (Reig, 2008), there are two types of messages in the world of communication and journalism. One is essentially equal para all mass media (we refer to the ones to which large groups or clusters of communication, that is, the most influencing, those who stablish agenda setting or state of affairs). We call this message structural and refers to the defense of the stablished order, specifically, the New World Order that originates, as immediate root, from 1991, when George Bush, father, “officially inaugurated it.”

We call the other type of message, conjunctural. With this denomination we refer to the political “battles”, critics to politicians, union rivalries, even the cases of corruption introduced as research journalism, but that are stopped, slowed down or silenced, as soon as they start to affect deepest interests of the structures of power. For instance, the GAL case in Spain or the case of “mad cow disease” (spongiform encephalopathy), or the depleted uranium, which caused diseases on the occasion of NATO bombing against Serbia in 1999; or the so-called “Gulf Syndrome”, something similar but in relation to the use of mysterious substances in 1991 by allies, substances that damaged the health of North American and British soldiers, above all, causing death among some of them; the case of contaminated Coca Cola packagings in one of the production factories in the Netherlands, something that occurred at the start of this century and that has been already forgotten, etc.

The conjunctural message appears all the time in daily journalism. It is focused a lot on partisan struggles, therefore it has a secondary relevance for this work. The conjunctural message is especially visible on the radio, news and in their talks, On the other hand, the conjunctural message will fill the citizen with a procession of events: deaths of all kinds, by murder, homicide, physical violence, above all, catastrophes, accidents, wars and massacres in the Third World, etc.

4. Results

Before confirming the results of our research line, we will recall an essential principle already expressed before, on which the Qualitative Content Analysis methodology is based on. What are we researchers looking for, with this type of analysis? Why do we use it? Eiroa and Barranquero (2017) say:

(…) researchers use it when they need to know topics in-depth and aspects related to perceptions and human behaviors, such as opinions, reflections, thoughts or the reasons behind making specific decisions.

From the human behaviours observed, vignette journalists have projected reflections, opinions, ideas, which is not strange they have – with a lesser extension- more deepness, critical relevance and stimulation for thinking, compared to the editorials and / or articles in a media.

A. Preliminary

Category 1. Methodological grounds

The structural approach is based in the interrelationship of elements, as we have seen before. Therefore, we need curiosity, transgression, not resigning to what is perceived at first sight or what we are shown. Here, there is an essential principle for both social research and journalist:

Now, globalization has brought such an inflation of messages, that it hinders the desire to know what lies underneath the visible, considering that the messages we receive, come to us in an overwhelming amount that puts our historical memory and our knowledge at stake, replaced by multiple but appealing disconnected data instead:

The infobesity that new technological times entail can be an obstacle for the development of the Structural Approach and Qualitative and Critical Analysis of messages coming from structures of power said Structural Approach studies.

B. Vignettes with conjunctural messages

Category 2. Critics to Mariano Rajoy, president of the Spanish government (in 2017-2018)

The president of Partido Popular (PP) Mariano Rajoy (Spain), was accused of stagnation, by letting problems get solved for themselves, letting them wear out before the presence of many other problems/ messages and due to the tiredness and the bad memory of the citizen.

Sub-category 2.1. Stagnation

4

Vignette by Ricardo, in El Mundo, 26/5/2011. Retrieved from: http://www.vozbcn.com/2011/05/26/74020/rajoy-trabajando-vineta-ricardo/

Sub-category 2.2. Submissiveness

Moreover, his submissiveness before foreign potencies, specially before Germany (Angela Merkel is the German chancellor) and USA, an aspect sharply managed in the vignette. A cover of El Jueves we reproduce was censored by Facebook back in 2012.

5
Submissiveness before external power [2]

Another vignette –from Kap– illustrated about  how problems of national sovereignty arise when we incorporate Spain in its European and world context. However, the vignette still concentrates its satire against a conjunctural political character.

6

Vignette by Kap. Jaume Capdevilla, in: http://www.voxeurop.eu/es/content/cartoon/1714051-soberano , 29/3/2012.


Mister Rajoy –even though he defends a structural world order – represents a simple human element with temporary political power that interacts minimally with the world’s actual Power but does not trouble nor compromises his activity, within the core of a dynamic called political game.

Category 3.  The prince and the princess

We deemed convenient to remind about the fact there has been a turning point after the famous cover of El Jueves from Summer 2007. However, we do not consider it is something that questions a system of power and control, like the market. But still, it is a clear warning about an idle institution and therefore, we are facing a qualitative progress in the search of freedom of expression in journalism, a search grounded in its existence due to the subsequent reaction of justice which, on one hand, recognizes the egalitarian nature of all Spanish citizens before the law, and on the other, approves special rules for the King figure. The normal action in this case is not that Justice takes action to enforce a special law, but that the King himself, the prince, princess or whoever feels offended in his or her rights went to the justice “as another citizen” to complain about being victim of a supposed public scorn... 

8



Category 4. Gap between world conjunction and ‘endocultural education’

The nation of minors and young individuals today is called world. We have known for sure and for a long time that we live in a pathological, competitive and very aggressive society (Martín García, 1999). It is necessary to know it, try to adapt to the environment but not lose the illusion to improve it. However, is endocultural education coherent with the situation described? Forges is sensitive to a problem perceived from its very personal pen:

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Anthropology understands ‘endocultural education’ to the one produced inside a home, which is completed by ‘exoculture’, the one that gets to the subject from the group, school, university, etc. (Muñoz Fernández and Reig, 2015). 

C. Vignette as critic of the structural message

As we said earlier, most of our analysis is dedicated to the vignette that derives from a systemic structural situation of power, a situation we described superficially. For better and for worse, we are surrounded by the mercantile activity and its effects. Opinion and analysis journalists, through their vignettes, are specially incisive with this aspect of our existence, undoubtedly aware that the  wide context that surrounds the human being influences his daily life.
Considering that, unfortunately we could say, some of the vignettes we selected in the past are still fully valid, we kept them and completed them with updated ones. 

Category 5. Unique market system

In reality, when we say we are in a market economy, we are not adjusting to reality. What exists is an economic system that competes less and collaborates more over time. In all fields of production there are fusions, absorptions, crossed participations, etc. at a forced march. Competence leaves room to concentration and internationalization. There is no bipolarity but a single dominating system that adapts laws and governments to its interests (Navarro and Torres López, 2012).

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Category 6. Human rights, submitted to economic interests

The unique system, without counterweight, makes room to the return of the ‘Hobbesian’ man. In the Western world there are precarious or very precarious contracts (afterward we will see this issue reflected in some vignette) and the spiral of silence activates. Nevertheless, their beneficiaries are the privileged portion of the planet. In other many parts of the world, human rights and peace are submitted to commercial interests. And still USA leads this geopolitical dynamic. 

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Category 7. Scandalous inequalities
Sub-category 7.1. Inequalities despite progresses

Even though hundreds of millions exited poverty in the last decades, one out of nine individuals still starves. However, existing resources would allow eliminating three quarters of extreme poverty if tax income increased and military expenses and other similarly regressive expenses were cut [3].

12


El Roto already reflected this situation on 2000. The contrast between a society more and more technified and the persistence of poverty.

Sub-category 7.2. The constant continues, but extended to youth

13


Sub-category 7.3. Hands-free system?

14

The question heading the previous sub-category leads us to think whether the author of the vignettes prior to this analysis –Forges- keeps in mind how labor reforms and politics of adjustment and austerity have caused labor precariousness in Spain, mainly. The so-called neoliberalism was successful in putting the system at its disposal and achieving hands-free to do whatever it wants in the market, even despise politicians elected democratically.

Sub-category 7.4. Market greed

El Roto shows relentless and goes directly to what perhaps is the root of the most negative aspects brought by the market: greed. Michael Moore (2010) states:

“Capitalism is the legalization of greed. Greed has always been among humans. There is a good number of things in our species you could call the dark side, and greed is one of them. If you do not put on hold specific structures or restrictions in those parts of our nature coming for this dark side, they get out of hand. Capitalism does the contrary. It does not only lacks restriction, but it stimulates it, rewards it.”

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Category 8. Ablation of consciousness

To perform a task that submits human rights to the economic interests is necessary to achieve a lack of sensitivity in the Western human, who is the most educated. Erasing from their brain the historical perspective and the context of events -and with it, the structural methodology- is essential to make the mentioned task possible.  Interpretative subjects are removed from career studies  or reduce their presence and synchronic approaches reduce drastically. New technologies contribute more to trap individuals in the Net than to free them, although they have potential for that.

16

Category 9. Double moral

However, the citizen is an accomplice of all this to a great extent. There is the famous double moral that confuses justice with charity. There is action on superficial affairs to clean the bad consciousness. Actions we perform are usually of makeup and vanity, not directed towards changing structures of power which are the ones causing most injustices we observe currently, as zenith of an ancestral process.

16


Category 10. Good will

Religion, volunteers, NGOs are essential elements with presence in our lives and of great usefulness, but only initially. From my perspective, they do not constitute any articulate power that really concerns the hegemonic power, which is the one that usually has the monopoly of violence and of the organized and studied scientifically message, through the mediatic clusters and service and communication consultantship companies.

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Category 11. No substantial change

September 4, 1999, El Roto, from El País, showed us a time that, essentially, did not distinguish from other times. From our perspective, utensils and technological tools have changed deeply, as well as behaviors, but there are no grounds allowing us to envision a change of mentality, a transmutation of ethical values, a world where having is submitted to being and technology to the knowledge in the sense of hermeneutical capacity, not possession of technological devices.  The Society of Knowledge, is really a fallacy, a sophism.

19


Sub-category 11.1. Does the system absorb the antisystem?

The capacity the market system has to absorb their enemies or rivals and turn them into its annexes is very interesting scientifically speaking. Without going too far, the cyber-activism is a behavior that uses tools offered by the system itself with the aim (or chimera) to destroy it and we already know the case of the famous Che Guevara T-shirt very well and how it is part of the symbolic capitalist universe coming from a strongly anti-system person. Consequently, we deem adequate the interrogation of our sub-category regarding whether we are standing before a constant instead of exceptions.

20

Category 12. Thought without thinking

If knowledge is not understood in compliance with the Theory of Knowledge, but instead in compliance with devices’ possession, our way of acting becomes technical. The human being waives old premises of causality in favor of entertainment, leisure and self-abandonment, induced and accepted at the same time; the human being waives fostering of thought as an element that looks for the deep causes of things. We will have information from here, but not knowledge, an instinct of not being well, but not aware of why we are not well.

21

Category 13. Functionality of message

The absence of thought and the critical capacity lead to the functionality of messages coming from the media of hegemonic thought, derived from the hegemonic structure of power called market economy. Media are framed in mediatic groups and clusters connected at the same time with other socioeconomic instances: banking, telecommunications, weapons, large industries in general. That is, media are not a counterpower but instead an element of hegemonic power that tends to preserve said power and for that it needs to create a specific state of public opinion.

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From this illustration of the year 2000, we have found others derived thereof and that we have placed in their corresponding sub-categories. All of them speak for themselves, with the common grounds of the agenda setting for the citizen despite of being in the digital society of interactions. Of course, the landscape has changed, but has it changed in essence?

Sub-category 13.1. Reversion of discourse

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Andrés Rábago, El Roto "Powers can do everything... if we allow to " (Lorenzana, 2012)

Sub-category 13.2.  Who is in charge of agenda setting now?

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With the social networks and the more and more generalized use of Internet by youth, mainly, there has been the belief of the decline of television as determinant in agenda setting, however, “young individuals that use more Internet (2 hours per day) do not watch less television. On the contrary, most who surf the Internet two hours daily watch more than three hours of television per day. Internet, once more, does not displaces television screen.” (Murduchowicz, 2008).

Sub-category 13.3. Who and what imposes agenda setting to those imposing agenda settings to publics? 

25


Perhaps one of the most interesting issues would be questioning who is beyond the visible faces in media, what interests do informers obey to.

Sub-category 13.4.  The power of banking

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http://www.cafeambllet.com/la-prensa-esta-en-manos-de-los-bancos/

The analysis of the previous vignettes indicates that we are standing before a correlation of facts we have ranked, at the same time we looked for an essential explanation to the last of questions. We believe – and to a great extent with reason- that we are facing the transmitter-recipient-transmitter society, a context where the recipient has a wide capacity of action. Nevertheless, cultural principles guiding the recipient do not differ essentially from those previous to the digital technological revolutions, but instead have increased sometimes: extreme individualism, narcissism, consumerism, apparent solidarity, arrogance and low self-esteem at the same time…  What is happening? To avoid delving deeper, that agendas setting are still built from the mercantile dynamic for the moment.

Category 14. Social disarticulation

In order to conduct public opinion towards one way or the other, it is necessary to mold the brain from childhood and youth. People must feel, have fun, not be aware of the cause of their problems. Society disarticulation is essential to achieve the aforesaid.

28

Youth manifestations on the street, to drink alcohol and get public spaces dirty, are extremely positive facts for reinforcing structures of power, who present as tolerant and democrat before a decadent situation that, deep inside, is a manifestation of passivity and indolence before life that relinquishes from its history to embrace an absolute instantaneity.

Category 15. New economy and loneliness

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The New Economy contributes to disarticulation and loneliness. The arrival of the post-industrial society has not produced, as authors like Daniel Bell indicated back in the sixties, but instead another very different one where exaggerated competitiveness replaces leisure in the sense of interrelationship and intercommunication. Machines, in effect, work for us, but have not made us freer nor calmer.

Category 16. Abandonment of the minor

The previous category leads us inevitable to this one. The new economy brings the fact that both partners need to work to manage home expenses. But this, that initially is something positive and desirable, turns into a negative element when we analyze working conditions and the characteristics of most of current jobs. Parents wish to rest when they get home, there is a waive of kids’ education and an abandonment of these at the hands of the new technologies that turn into educative sources and “nursery schools.”

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The arrival of the ‘Self Media’ (Jean Cloutier), of the Screens Society (Román Gubern) and digital natives, has not only entailed another abandonment of the minor at the hands of the digital culture, but also that culture has extended to the complete population to a greater or lesser extent, with its benefits and prejudices, which are being studied continuously.

31


Deloitte reports already echoed in 2017 about the excessive use of Smartphone by youth, but not to speak through the phone (less than 10 percent do this) but instead to use it as instant messaging. Likewise, computers approach closer more and more to the human brain structure and tablets give in their sales to smartphones, improved in size.  

Category 17. A dangerous object

The boy and the young individual end up by waiving to manage elements that -still- constitute the cognitive and methodological support to face life: the main one, the book, which they end up perceiving as a strange object. The book as methodological synchronic pillar, with the support of a professor, is not in the net yet. It would be necessary to elaborate a book of books, an already specialized task of the teacher, the researcher.

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.
Category 18. Illusion of freedom

One of the main results –regarding current adult generations and most conscious young individuals – is a single subject, isolated, theoretically free, aware about what is happening, but impotent to solve his or her deepest and crucial problems. In said subjects, there is a progressive abandonment in the sense defined by Seligman: the illusion declines, the will for self-improvement and self-esteem lessen, before the confirmation that everything is useless despite what is done. The hegemonic system defeats out of tiredness, without convincing, it wins, and everything turns into a routine, into a sort of peace of resignation, splashed by dysfunctional crashes the mediatic message tries to discredit immediately. To spread the illusion of freedom into the minds is a priority for all domains’ system.

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Category 19. Reaction against critics to emotions, beliefs and power

34

The journalists’ massacre on January 2015 in the editorial offices of Paris of the satiric magazine Charlie Hebdo at the hands of radical Islamists, entails a reading about what are the limits of human beings when some vignettes attempt against emotions and religious beliefs behind armed organizations. As can be observed in the illustrations, the covers of the magazines did not only draw cartoons of Mohammed but also of other ‘book’ religions (Judaism and Christianity). The Western press vignette does not only criticize the Western structure of power but also the one behind other cultures. Results can be fatal at the same time phobia against Islam leave a mark among citizens and some voices – such as the case of the journalist Roberto Savio, founder of the Press Service International Agency (IPS)- try to rummage in the History of Western abuses against the Islamic world to try to understand what happened without it meaning to sneak into the assassins’ side. The reader might find reflections in the link indicated below the slide.

Category 20. Double ethics of journalism

35

However, when the citizen in general and journalism in particular showed support with the victims of the attack under the slogan Je suis Charlie, the journalistic labor dynamic continued with the limitation suffered due to another kind of violence: pressures upon the free work of the journalist. The director, editorial chief or section chief, know what must be published and what don’t, what can be extended on a larger Surface and what entails less space, as well as the news that must be eliminated or shrink due to advertisement. But, actually, said ‘attacks do not see the light, because regarding the presentation of the media in public, it must comply with what is considered politically correct.

5. Conclusions

Before a traditional rather anemic discourse journalism, scarcely transgressor, that has turned the journalist into a seller of messages, the vignette journalism provides fresh air and we have numerous examples demonstrating so– such as the ones shown here-. It is about a journalism of opinion that combines inventiveness with image. Both factors turn into basic tools to lead the recipient from data to interpretation, from Information to Knowledge, from the yawning to the delight, from the routine to the stimulus, because the first thing a human being must do if there is the will for a possible solution to the essential problems, is to be aware of the ultimate causes of said problems. And the ultimate causes, from our perspective, are enclosed within the current system of domain known as market economy. That the problem is surmountable or not, improvable or not in essence, is actually, another problem.

6. Notes

[1] AT&T confirms the purchase of Time Warner for 85.000 million dollars, Saturday, October 22, 2016, http://expansion.mx/empresas/2016/10/22/at-t-confirma-compra-de-time-warner-por-85-000-millones-de-dolares 

[2] Facebook censors a cover of El Jueves about Rajoy and Merkel,
http://www.publico.es/actualidad/facebook-censura-portada-jueves-rajoy.html, 14/6/2012.

[3] http://periodistas-es.com/riqueza-mundial-ocho-ricos-igualan-a-3600-millones-de-pobres-80693, 17/1/2017.

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How to cite this article in bibliographies / References

R Reig, R Mancinas-Chávez (2018): “Transgresion and critics of the system: the journalistic vignette”. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 73, pp. 504 to 530.
http://www.revistalatinacs.org/073paper/1266/25en.html
DOI: 10.4185/RLCS-2018-1267en

Article received on 10 December 2017. Accepted on 24 February.
Published on 2 March 2018.

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