RLCS, Revista Latina de Comunicacion Social
Revista Latina

DOI, Digital Objetc Identifier 10.4185/RLCS-2016-1091en | ISSN 1138 - 5820 | RLCS # 71 | 2016 | Audio-visual explanation of the author |

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How to cite this article in bibliograhies / References

XA Neira Cruz  (2016): “Literacy media and social integration of the elderly prison population”. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 71, pp. 197 to 210.
DOI: 10.4185/RLCS-2016-1091en

Literacy media and social integration
of the elderly prison population

XA Neira Cruz [CV] [Descripción: Descripción: http://www.revistalatinacs.org/069/paper/1019_USC/image001.jpgORCID ] [Descripción: Descripción: http://www.revistalatinacs.org/069/paper/1019_USC/image002.jpgGS], Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), España neira.cruz@usc.es

Prisons gradually reflect the process of population ageing that society lives. Without specific consideration in the current prison system, the elderly prison population lives a double ostracism in which, the isolation from the media contrasts with a world full of screens, reinforcing the difficulties of a future social reintegration. The campUSCulturae Project, coordinated from the Faculty of Communication Sciences of the University of Santiago de Compostela, has launched initiatives for media literacy at Teixeiro Prison (A Coruña) using participant observation techniques and service learning. These initiatives have resulted in the development of an Archive of Voices of the World, which reflects and puts in value the flow of cultural diversity that lives within the walls of the prison; the development of a radio program and inculturation in the use of new media through the use of a personal poetic captured through a digital narratives initiative. The first results of this project demonstrate the power of the media in the recovery of dignity and self-representation dynamics; they stimulate active participation, the development of critical awareness and recovery of personal memory as a symbolic form of reintegration of convicts in the “sociedad mediática y multipantalla” (media and multiscreen society) (Pérez Tornero, 2008: 15) which they are also part of, even if they are not enjoying it due to prison’s requirements.

Media; prisons; elderly population; accessibility; self-representation; cultural diversity

1. Introduction. 2. Material and methodology. 2.1. The age range in Prison Rules. 2.2. The prison population in Spain. 2.3. Methodological issues. 3. Intervention at the penitentiary of Teixeiro (A Coruña). 4. Results. 4.1. Participation. 4.2. Motivations. 4.3. Products. 4.4. Expectations. 5. Conclusions. 6. Notes. 7. Bibliographic references.

Translation by S. Marx (University of Maine) and
Yuhanny Henares (Universitat de Barcelona)

 [ Research ] [ Funded ] 
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1. Introduction

Even though it can be said that “a good portion of the world, both developed and not so developed, has turned into a media and multi-screen society” where the “screens have become a constant element in almost all artificial environments of the human life, thus changing the geography and the traditional perspectives” (Pérez Tornero, 2008: 15); there are still realities close to us that keep existing, subscribed in our developed and increasingly technological societies, where the key principle of globalization of communication access is not fulfilled or is very distant from usual standards that apply to citizens overall. This is the case of people that serve their sentence in Spanish prisons, for whom this quotidianity populated by screens (Televisions, computers, mobile phones, Internet, etc.) that characterize the society they belong to, is completely non-existent. On the contrary, and independently of the crime leading them to the situation of freedom deprivation, convict population lives a situation of media isolation which is only broken partially in the case of newspaper, radio and television consumption, and exceptionally, in cases where a special authorization is granted, there is access to computers and controlled connection to Internet.

If we champion that “symbolic expression and creativity are not luxuries of modern life. They are essential for the human existence and its relevance has been growing since the arrival and fast expansion of media, symbolic resources developed by media and the cultural industry, Internet and the apparition of personal communication technologies, especially the mobile phone” (Lull, 2008: 22), it seems clear that the media ostracism may often entail restrain from usual media for years, and even decades, of people who, according to the Penitentiary regulations in effect, must find in prisons the pathway for their social reintegration. The daily practice is evidencing that mentioned reintegration, aside from difficulties of either personal, social or economic nature, faces additional barriers related to the lack of acquaintance of convicts of long term penitentiary experiences, with the new forms of usual communication in a society where, suddenly, they return to without a previous media literacy. This situation gets more severe in elderly convict population, a minority -as we will see in this document- that is increasingly growing in Spanish and European prisons alike, and for whom the age-related difficulties are multiplied. Likewise, this also happens from the perspective of their access capacity to media, due to required seclusion experience and media isolation. The considerations proposed by authors who talked about the relationship of elderly population with media, more than a decade ago, whereas “it is not the chronological age of people which is most important in determining how and why they use the media, but the context in which these individuals reside. Consequently, they focus their attention on the influences of older people’s physical, psychological, cognitive, social and economic conditions on their media behaviour”, (Vanderbosch & Eggermont, 2002: 435) are still up-to-date.

Having this reality as starting point, and considering its relationship with essential principles related to the right to access the information, the equality of opportunities or the non-discrimination set forth in our constitutional framework, which are aspects that ground our governing system and from which the health and strength of our democracy depend (Callejo, 2008), the present article offers results and conclusions, still partial though, of the intervention carried out by campUSCulturae project in the Teixeiro Prison (A Coruña) and its impact, through inculturation and acquaintance with the use of media, in the imprisoned population older than 60 y.o. who serves their sentence in aforementioned center.

2. Material and methodology
Age range in Prison Rules

In order to determine the period considered as old age we refer to, instead of using any other classic proposal of biologic nature (Bourlière, 1970), we consider the criteria managed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs used to classify Spanish prison population by age; these criteria determine, for example, anticipated release of seventy-year-old convicts who meet specific legal requirements, a reason that has favoured the reduction of elderly belonging to this age range in the penitentiaries of our country. In any case, the international regulations about this issue do not consider the need to have specialized prisons destined to shelter convicts that have exceeded the threshold of old age. The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners [1] state, in their 8º section, the need of a classification by categories, without concretizing specific regulations for elderly prisoners. Likewise, regulation 6733 is only generic. Only regulation 68, and through a wide interpretation thereof, envisions in a vaguely and diffuse manner, the possibility to create specific penitentiaries for elderly convicts when it indicates that “So far as possible separate institutions or separate sections of an institution shall be used for the treatment of the different classes of prisoners”. On the other hand, European Prison Rules of 1987 (Yagüe, 2009) set forth classification criteria of prisoners, and their distribution in penitentiary facilities, considering not only their judicial and legal situation, but also particular aspects related to the need to receive medical treatment, as well as gender or age (Rule 11.1), emphasizing on the need to separate men from women and minors from adults (Rules 11.2 and 11.4).


2.2. Elderly prison population in Spain

The Spanish prison population is one of the most numerous in the European context, an aspect associated not only with the crime rates in our country, but also and essentially, with the presence of a penitentiary and crime policy that, despite its philosophy promoting reintegration, it doesn’t seem to have succeeded in stopping the constant increase of convicts in Spanish prisons. Therefore, in just a decade, more than twelve thousand people have summed up to the Spanish prison population, increasing from 56.096 individuals registered in the census in 2003 to 68.597 in 2012, with significant peaks in years such as 2009, where the Spanish prison population reached 76.079 members. These numbers position Spain as the fourth European country with a higher number of prisoners, only surpassed by United Kingdom, Poland and France. The dimension of these data gets a broader reach if we consider the population differential in United Kingdom or France compared to Spain, both countries having almost eighteen million more inhabitants than ours [2].

In this context, the increase of elderly prisoners, that is, convicted individuals that have exceeded 60 years old is rather eye-catching. Despise it is a generalized process at European level [3], in the Spanish case we can observe the data showed in the following tables.

Spanish prison population older than 60 years old


Number of prisoners










No information available

















Graphic of Author’s own creation. Source: National Statistics Institute (INE)

Total Spanish prison population and older than 60 years old distributed by gender


Men prison population

Women prison population

Men prisoners older than 60 years old

Women prisoners older than 60 years old


January 2007






January 2008






January 2009






January 2010






January 2011






January 2012






January 2013






January 2014






Graphic of Author’s own creation. Source: General Secretary of Prisons

According to this information, the number of prisoners older than 60 years old is evolving towards an increase. Hence, in 1985 there were 108 convicts older than 60 years old (0.9% of prison population), whereas recently (January 2014) this number multiplied by 16, turning to 1797 (3.2% of this population).

Regarding gravity of crimes, “the elderly prison population in penitentiaries is serving sentence for the group of crimes grouped as “homicides and its forms” to a higher extent than the rest of the prison population: 16.25% compared to 6.82%, being 32.15% of the causes leading men that have exceeded 70 years old to prison. Similarly happens with crimes against sexual freedom.” (Yagüe, 2009: 79).


2.3. Methodological aspects

Techniques and methods derived from Participant Observation, service learning and “Learn by doing” (Abellán & Mayugo, 2008) were included in the design of the methodologies applied to the development of activities, through which the intervention mentioned in this article was channelled. It involved two groups of students from the last course of the Communications Sciences Degree in a volunteer initiative that was also reflected in their corresponding final degree projects (TFG in Spanish). Within general objectives set forth for the campUSCulturae project intervention -and according to the agreement signed with the General Secretary’s Office of Prisons-, the nine volunteers involved were free to suggest contributions and innovations on the initial plan, so that they could feel co-participant in an initiative which, to some extent, also was part of their passion, suggestions and, of course, interests.  Every group was responsible of justifying the practical applications in a previous theoretical paper, duly supported from the methodological and bibliographic perspective, counting on the tutoring of the director for their final degree project at this stage. Once the intervention was approved, it was tested with convicts associated to the Coordination – a figure we will further explain in following pages- so that they could function as a link, contrast and verification entities towards remaining participant convicts. Thus, in was intended to reinforce the commitment with the intervention, both from volunteers as well as the receptors of the action.


3. Intervention in Teixeiro Prison (A Coruña)

In the development framework of the European Project campUSCulturae, institutionally coordinated by the University of Santiago de Compostela, from the Faculty of Communication Sciences and co-financed by the Culture Agency of the EACEA through the multi-annual program “Culture” [4], regarding attention to cultural diversity, minorities and individuals in risk of social exclusion (three essential core themes of the project), there was a particularly interesting field of action found in the Teixeiro Penitentiary, a high security prison build in Corunna Province in 1998 [5], it is currently the most populated of all prisons in the Autonomous Community of Galicia. The high number of convicts coming from different cultures (more than 50 different nationalities coexist in this centre) and the lack of presence of initiatives related to the development of stable experiences of communitarian radio, encouraged University of Santiago de Compostela to sign a collaboration agreement [6] with the General Secretary of Prisons for the development of the following activities, among others:

a.) Voices of the World Archive, an initiative linked from campUSCulturae to the inventory of the General Library of the University of Santiago de Compostela, through which the cultural diversity is intended to be introduced by using small pieces of oral tradition (songs, short stories, poems, legends, games, proverbs, mythology, etc.) coming from different cultural contexts. These contents, recorded on behalf of campUSCulturae project, were collected in the original language they were told and translated into Galician, Spanish and English for its presentation in the campUSCulturae website and dissemination, both through the mentioned Library as well as in spaces destined thereof as stated by the Culture Agency of the EU, co-financing entity of campUSCulturae project. Among the social collectives invited to provide their free and voluntary contribution to this voice and cultures archive, there is the collective represented by Teixeiro Prison’s convicts who, voluntarily and within the limits allowed by the prison’s responsibles, have manifested their will or intention to take part in this project; acknowledging at all times, their anonymity rights and their collaboration by quoting their name, surnames, pseudonym or any other identification option the collaborator considered, as well as the place and country of origin of the oral piece provided.  Due to reasons belonging to the mandatory data protection, campUSCulturae rigorously meets agreed conditions with the collaborator in a document handed in before recording is done. The document exposes the conditions campUSCulturae is committed to comply with and the explicit authorization of gratuitous cession from the collaborator.  In order to carry out, develop and monitor this activity, the following steps were established:

a.1) Distribution of an informative basic brochure among Teixeiro convicts with the corresponding invitation. CampUSCulturae committed to elaborate said informative brochure which, after being approved by the Management of Teixeiro, enough copies were printed so that the Management of the Penitentiary or the corresponding department could hand it to the convict population defined as receptor of this initiative. The existence of an official educational centre, belonging to the Galician educational network depending on the Consellería de Cultura, Educación e Ordenación Universitaria de la Xunta de Galicia (Council of Culture, Education and Universities of the Galician Government), advised the involvement of professors subscribed to this centre as well as students interested.

a.2) Assignation, on behalf of Teixeiro, of a coordinator among convicts for this activity, who was in charge of receiving, elaborating and managing lists of participants, complying with all data protection guidelines; indicating identification name (or pseudonym), age, place and country of origin, as well as the type of collaboration the individual would like to offer (in the formulary provided there were different categories or modalities, so that receptors could clearly understand how to channel their contribution).

a.3) Reception of these formularies from campUSCulturae responsibles before recording, in order to plan and organize said activity.

 a.4) Establishing of the number of visits, agreed with Teixeiro Management, as well as their duration and number of convicts participating in every shift.

a.5) Use of a basic audio recording device within Teixeiro facilities in the days agreed.

a.6) Edition and publication of said contents –meeting conditions agreed with each one of the collaborators– on the website of the campUSCulturae project, including the explicit acknowledgement of the collaboration offered by the Teixeiro Prison and/ or involved institution(s).

b) Making a radio program from Teixeiro, contents programmed within broadcast of Radio campUSCulturae online (digital radio broadcast linked to the homonymous project), carried out and coordinated by Teixeiro convicts who expressed their interest in participating in this proposal.

Steps and requirements to perform this activity:

b.1) Invitation to an intensive training course in the use of digital technology needed to elaborate a radio program. This training course was offered by members of the campUSCulturae team on the days determined by the penitentiary (mornings and afternoons, on Wednesdays, from February to July, 2014) and its purpose was familiarizing participants with basic tools that allowed them to make and record a radio program for its online transmission, including basic contents related to the organization of a production step outline, locution basics and organization of a program grid or designed programs. According to the needs and the development of training needed, regular training visits to the centre were appointed by a project representative in order to act as tutor and clarify doubts regarding elaboration of the radio program which in a broad sense, included subjects related to cultural diversity, reintegration of individuals with risk of social exclusion, minorities; literary, artistic and musical creation or creativity.

b.2) Installing of the software needed to make the program by campUSCulturae project, leaving said tool at the disposal of the penitentiary for later uses. It is important to clarify that, once the needed software was installed, convicts didn’t need to be connected to Internet to elaborate their radio programs, except on the stablished moments and under the supervision of the officers assigned by the centre’s management.

b.3) Establishing of dynamics and frequency of the radio programs designed by convicts, sending files through e-mail from the penitentiary, using the specific Intranet of campUSCulturae or delivering the recordings of every program in order to be included in the program grid of Radio campUSCulturae online.

c ) Digital narratives, an initiative that intends to develop among convicts, the creativity and capacity to tell stories at the same time digital literacy and the use of new technological resources applied to communication is promoted. In the same manner as previous proposals, in this case Teixeiro convicts were invited to participate in a project where, in fact, different social collectives are involved and whose main intention is to reflect, in the diversity, the huge creative potential that we all have inside and underline the presence of other cultures and languages within our environment and our cultural consumption habits, in a new experience of Babel Tower but distant, in this case, from any negative association linked to the term (Early, 2005). The website of campUSCulturae will have a specific section to introduce and disseminate determined digital narratives proposals (signing with every author the corresponding cession agreement); likewise, the campUSCulturae project will provide to the Teixeiro Penitentiary the software needed in order to perform this activity. Previously, responsibles of campUSCulturae organized training conferences in order to get users acquainted with the software management as well as to offer them basics notions regarding literary creation and the design and structuration of digital narratives.


4. Results

Regardless the mandatory partial nature of results, considering this is still an ongoing intervention that has barely surpassed its first stage of development, it is possible to identify initial results related to the level of participation of prison population involved as well as the first media products achieved after this first immersion of participants into a literacy process in the use of screens inside a micro-society context, which is precisely characterized by the generalized lack of access to this predominant reality in the current informative, of consumption and leisure trends. Considering these criteria, the following may be highlighted:

4.1. Participation: even though the management of the Teixeiro Penitentiary determined the participation of a specific public receptor of the designed activities, characterized by having a higher level education or university education (a bias we did not desire but needed to accept as an imposition linked to the internal organization dynamics), the involvement of convicts considered as social group leaders in the participant’s recruitment process, enabled to modify starting point conditions through the almost spontaneous onset of snowball sampling techniques  (Explorable.com). Hence, individuals related to different social realities and educational levels incorporated to the project. From these, we highlight -due to obvious reasons related to the nature of this study- the presence of ten individuals older than 60 years old, approximately 30% of total elderly population resident in Teixeiro. From these, two had completed higher level studies, one was a woman and three were foreigners of Latin-American origin. None of them have participated in educational, cultural or ludic experiences directly related with media before and only two acknowledged a certain basic acquaintance with the use of informatics or audiovisual tools. The remaining individuals involved were younger than 30 years old (63 participants), from 30 to 45 years old (42 participants) and from 45 to 60 years old (15 participants), resulting a total of 130 subjects, whereas only 12 of them were women. Due to the nature of one of the activities organized (The Voices of the World Archives, which core theme is the reflex of cultural and linguistic diversity of said collective), most of participants (70%) were foreigners: 60% of Latin-American origin, 28% of European origin, 11% of African origin and 1% of Asian origin.

4.2. Motivations: starting with an initial apathy and passivity as a consequence of the dynamics in the group towards activities proposed from the centre, and demonstrating a high level of mistrust regarding the interest that their social origin, nationality and culture raised, the collective linked to the activity moved progressively from a participation exclusively motivated by the acquisition of penal benefits directly associated to their participation in educational or cultural activities, to the active involvement, suggestion of new contents and the demonstration of an increasing enthusiasm, not exempted of caution about the fact that the weekly visits could end at any moment unexpectedly. The group dynamics generated through the agreed meetings promoted its continuation outside the stablished schedule, up to the point of internally demanding a second weekly permission – granted by the centre’s management- to hold sectorial meetings about different ongoing activities leaded by convicts with coordination responsibilities. Among the aspects valued the most by participants when it came to describe the motivations generated by this initiative, there outstood the possibility to access a higher level of general knowledge of the dominant media reality; incursion in informative and journalistic production dynamics that were unknown to them until then; possibility to increase informative links among inhabitants of the different modules where prisoners are classified; feasibility of articulating stable educational dynamics related to the communication field, towards possible work expectations middle and long term that could make their social reintegration easier; and the opportunity to offer a direct testimony of life in prison to the society, through informative products managed directly by them. The abandonment rate -a threat that lurked the project from the first month- was finally minimal (3%) and mostly due to impositions related with repressive measures activated by the centre management when offenses to discipline, required in prison life, occurred.

4.3. Products: The first results of this initiative have crystallized, for the moment, in the design of the radio program “Ondas de Libertad” (Waves of Freedom), completely thought, produced and carried out by participant convicts though the different entrusted functions (management, production, locution and technical control) and within the shortage of resources they are in, which was partly alleviated with the contributions of campUSCulturae project. “Ondas de Libertad”, with a duration of 90 minutes and an initial weekly broadcasting frequency, has a format of current radio magazines, with thematic sections and cultivating different informative genres (interview, opinion column, chronicle and news). As a product of their experience as listeners of scarce radio contents (in Teixeiro, the only radio broadcast that can be listened to are Radio Nacional de España –National Radio of Spain– and Radio Galega –Galician Radio–), participant convicts have reflected the intertextuality phenomenon in their own proposal, by creating “from their previous knowledge an aesthetical intention associated to their presentation and their context” (Tyner, 2008: 82). On the other hand, the designed radio product, far from promoting any intention of evading their surrounding reality, it has encouraged discussion, research and delving about context and its reasons, confirming its function of communitarian projection and self-introduction exercise “of imaginary collectives in proximity spaces” (Abellán & Mayugo, 2008: 133). Likewise, Voices of the World Archive transformed its initial vocation of digital container of intercultural and plurilinguistic references into a memoristic receptacle through which participants recovered, reproduced and partly, redeemed fragments of their vital experience before seclusion; without any intention or premeditated orientation form our part, 92% percent of the 95 registries recorded result in the autobiography theme, without hints of complaisance and with a high level of self-criticism which is not exempt of emotivity. Imprisonment, as experience of cultural alienation, is evident in faltering testimonies of many participants who, after so many years far from their original cultural and linguistic context, show with impotency their inability to articulate a coherent discourse in their mother language. A fortunate consequence of this experience was the recovery, from a considerable part of participants, of the desire to remember using their own language, in order to repeat their recordings, by their own will, so to confirm progresses and correct initial staggers. Far from any desire of revenge or antisystem flicker, most recordings exude intimacy, childhood and family as recurrent themes. Finally, regarding the development of digital narratives, the lack of proficiency in the management of needed tools and the lack of access to media outside the time agreed for the activity, all these delayed attainment of results, beyond punctual achievements. The continuity of this activity promises future conclusions of greater interest and impact.

4.4. Expectations: Once the second stage of the intervention started, it was possible to envision consequences and outcomes with intervention capacity in the context we have been working with. The emergence of the “technologies of mood” (Evans, 2001, cited by Lull, 2008: 22) within the walls of prison have effectively boosted the pleasure to create, disseminating a dynamism the centre management didn’t doubt to assume as well. Therefore, plans for starting their own radio broadcast, with communitarian, educational and ludic dimension, is included among future projects of Teixeiro, following the trail and the example widely carried out by other penitentiaries but, in this particular case, filling a media gap that, after six months of activity, it seems remote and impossible. Additionally, and in the hope of overcoming reluctances that are still present among responsibles of the centre organization, the project intends to develop an audiovisual experience, with a double educational and creative dimension, that concludes with the elaboration of a documentary or short film. Finally, and for them, there are still ongoing negotiations with the Penitentiary institutions, in order to authorize the introduction of recording equipment required within the boundaries of said prison.


5. Conclusions

The following findings are the first conclusions of an ongoing project, and also ‘on the go’ reflections which enable correcting pathways and open new research areas:

  • Convict population of Spanish prisons follow demographic ageing processes similar to what our global society is experiencing, with an increasing trend of elderly in the penitentiary context for whom the system has not yet developed alternative solutions; the contrary of what has been done for other cases or other situations that required specific attention.

  • Access to media in prison, when it occurs, it is synonym of an exceptional situation. There is a restriction of the right to access information dynamic as part of the sentence to be served.

  • Penal situations that recommend the restriction to media access are indiscriminately applied, without attending to the specificity of cases and people who, according to the nature of crimes committed, shouldn’t have their right to keep a frequent contact with information diminished.

  • This situation of media isolation contrasts with the experience of a society full of screens, reinforcing the distances between the secluded population and the rest of citizens and increasing the difficulties for social reintegration that all prison sentences involve or should involve.

  • Elderly prison population experiences these processes of technological replacement with particular stress, which sum up to the processes generated by the difficult assembly to the current penitentiary system.

  • Information and access to media is experienced by prison population as part of a return to the desired normality. Introducing media in prisons relaxes unnecessary tensions, stimulates reflection and self-introduction dynamics and boosts educational process with a high level of personal involvement.

  • New information technologies collide with the limitations of a context that is not updated enough regarding benefits a well-developed media education can offer in the penitentiary context; old beliefs linked to an obsolete technological mistrust seem to endure in the prison context.

  • An adequate media pedagogy and a progressive digital literacy of prisoners alleviate their feeling of social ostracism, experienced doubly by convicts who, generationally, have not witness technological replacement in freedom.

  • Creativity, memory and self-representation constitute the main pillars to develop stimulating themes through the new media, especially among elderly. The pleasure of acknowledging themselves, in these processes, with the opportunity to reencounter a certain personal dimension for personal dignity through creation.

All these findings aligned with campUSCulturae philosophy, pretend to contribute to creating “an integrative space of creative and artistic projects […] enabling different cultures or different social groups to get closer together, under equal conditions, developing an exchanging model” (Neira Cruz, 2013: 89). Now, more than ever, we believe there is a need for the exchange of communications flows between that social group, the prison population and the media society they are part of; but they live apart from it due to the demands of a penitentiary system that ought to be updated.

  • Financed research. This article is product of the project entitled “campUSCulturae”, reference 2011-1177/001-001 CU7-MULT7, co-financed by EACEA Culture Agency of the EU, through the program “Culture”.


6. Notes

[1] Adopted on the I United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, held in Geneva in 1955, and approved by the Economic and Social Council through resolutions 663C (XXIV) dated July 31st, 1957 and 2076 (LXII) dated May 13th, 1977.

[2] Data available in Eurostat: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=crim_pris&lang=en

[3] In the British case, people older than 60 years old and within the age range of 50 and 59 years old represent the first and second group, respectively, with a higher increase of prisoners between 2002 and 2014, with increase percentages of 146 and 122 percent respectively. Data available in:

[4] campUSCulturae (2011-1177/001-001 CU7-MULT7) is one of the eight European projects co-financed by the Culture Agency through the program “Culture”, “Multi-annual Projects” section, for the 2011-2016 period. The total budget of the project is 4.547.713,98 Euros, of which 2.273.857,02 are provided by the Culture Agency, whilst the remaining amount is being co-financed by the six institutions acting as co-beneficiaries of said project, that is: University of Santiago de Compostela –institutional coordinator of campUSCulturae- and University of Lodz (Poland); Vigdís Finnbogadóttir Institute of the University of Iceland; the German Consultancy Company CHE Consult  GmbH, specialized in working with educative institutions, research institutions and scientific groups looking for work strategies in accordance with the new challenges of the current European University framework; non-governmental organization Minority Studies Society Studii Romani (Bulgaria),which field of action focuses on support, promotion, dissemination and study of European cultural minority groups, especially those belonging to the gipsy ethnic group; and the Associação Cultural e Pedagógica Ponte nas... ondas! (Portugal), a non-profit organization that has created a collaboration network between educative centres in the South of Galicia and North of Portugal through the use of radio and television with educational purposes. More information in: http://campusculturae.com and in Neira Cruz & García, 2011; Neira Cruz, 2013.

[5]  Located at the Corunna municipality of Teixeiro, this penitentiary has a total floor area of 86.430 square meters, in a plot of 353.321 square meters, with 944 cells plus 148 complementary cells.

[6] Agreement number 1,465, signed on November 12th, 2013.

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Callejo, Javier (2008). “El derecho de acceso a los medios: reflexiones metodológicas sobre su seguimiento”, in Comunicar, 30, v. XV, 107-112

Early, J. (2005) “Patrimonio y diversidade cultural, ciudadanos y Estado en la era de la globalización”, in Diversidad cultural: el valor de la diferencia. Santiago de Chile: LOM Ediciones, 79-90

Explorable.com (Apr 24, 2009). Muestreo de bola de nieve. Oct 30, 2014 Obtained from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/es/muestreo-de-bola-de-nieve

Lull, James (2008). “Los placeres activos de expresar y comunicar”, in Comunicar, 30, v. XV, 21-26

Neira Cruz, Xosé A. & García García, Irene (2011). campUSCulturae. Un espazo internacional para as minorías e a diversidade cultural. Santiago de Compostela: Unidixital, 92 p.

Neira Cruz, Xosé A. (2013).”campUSCulturae: una experiencia multimedia desde las Ciencias de la Comunicación a favor de la diversidad cultural”, in Las Media Enterprises y las industrias culturales. Investigar la Comunicación y los nuevos medios. Libro de actas del III Congreso Internacional Comunicación 3.0 (Salamanca, 10-11 de octubre de 2012. Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca, 87-98 (http://comunicacion3punto0.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/comunicacion3punto0libroactas2012.pdf)

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Tyner, Kathleen (2008). “Audiencias, intertextualidad y nueva alfabetización en medios”, en Comunicar, 30, v. XV 79-85

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How to cite this article in bibliographies / References

XA Neira Cruz  (2016): “Literacy media and social integration of the elderly prison population”. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 71, pp. 197 to 210.
DOI: 10.4185/RLCS-2016-1091en

Article received on 29 December 2016. Accepted on 14 February.
Published on 20 February 2016.